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Enuma ElishEdit

This Tablet I translation was published in 1902 by Leonard William King.[1]


1. When in the height heaven was not named,

2. And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name,

3. And the primeval Apsû, who begat them,

4. And chaos, Tiamat, the mother of them both,—

5. Their waters were mingled together,

6. And no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen;

7. When of the gods none had been called into being,

8. And none bore a name, and no destinies [were ordained];

9. Then were created the gods in the midst of [heaven],

10. Lahmu and Lahamu were called into being [...].

11. Ages increased, [...],

12. Then Anshar and Kishar were created, and over them [...].

13. Long were the days, then there came forth [...]

14. Anu, their son, [...]

15. Anshar and Anu [...]

16. And the god Anu [...]

17. Nudimmud, whom his fathers [his] begetters [...]

18. Abounding in all wisdom, [...]

19. He was exceeding strong [...]

20. He had no rival [...]

21. (Thus) were established and [were ... the great gods (?)].

22 . But T[iamat and Âpsû] were (still) in confusion [...],

23. They were troubled and [...]

24. In disorder(?) ... [...]

26. And Tiamat roared [...]

25. Apsû was not diminished in might [...]

27. She smote, and their deeds [...]

28. Their way was evil ... [...] ...

29. Then Apsû, the begetter of the great gods,

30. Cried unto Mummu, his minister, and said unto him:

31. "O Mummu, thou minister that rejoicest my spirit,

32. "Come, unto Tiamat let us [go]!"

33. So they went and before Tiamat they lay down,

34. They consulted on a plan with regard to the gods [their sons].

35. Apsû opened his mouth [and spake],

36. And unto Tiamat, the glistening one, he addressed [the word]:

37. "[...] their way [...],

38. "By day I cannot rest, by night [I cannot lie down (in peace)].

39. "But I will destroy their way, I will [...],

40. "Let there be lamentation, and let us lie down (again in peace)."

41. When Tiamat [heard] these words,

42. She raged and cried aloud [...].

43. [She ...] grievously [...],

44. She uttered a curse, and unto [Apsû she spake]:

45. "What then shall we [do]?

46. "Let their way be made difficult, and let us [lie down (again) in peace]."

47. Mummu answered, and gave counsel unto Apsû,

48. [...] and hostile (to the gods) was the counsel Mu[mmu gave]:

49. "Come, their way is strong, but thou shalt destroy [it];

50. "Then by day shalt thou have rest, by night shalt thou lie down (in peace)."

51. Apsû [hearkened unto] him and his countenance grew bright,

52. [Since] he (i.e. Mummu) planned evil against the gods his sons.

53. [...] he was afraid [...],

54. His knees [became weak(?)], they gave way beneath him,

55. [Because of the evil] which their first-born had planned.

56. [...] their [...] they altered(?).

58. Lamentation [...] they sat in [sorrow] '

57. [...] they [...],

59. [...]

p. 12 p. 13

60. Then Ea, who knoweth all that [is], went up and he beheld their muttering.

61. [...]

62. [...] ... his pure incantation

63. [...] ... [...]

64. [...]

65. [...] misery

66. [...]

67. [...]

[Lines 68-82 are wanting.]

83. [...]

84 [...] ...

85. [...] the god Anu,

86. [... an aven]ger.

87. [...]

88. [...] and he shall confound Tiamat.

89. [...] he ...

90. [...] for ever.

91. [...] the evil,

92. [...] ... he spake:

93. "[...] thy [...] he hath conquered and

94. " [...] he [weepeth] and sitteth in tribulation(?).

95. "[...] of fear,

96. "[...] we shall not lie down (in peace).

97. "[...] Apsû is laid waste(?),

98. "[...] and Mummu, who were taken captive, in [...]

99. "[...] thou didst, ...

100. "[...] let us lie down (in peace).

101. "[...] ... they will smite (?) [...].

102. " [...] let us lie down (in peace).

103. "[...] thou shalt take vengeance for them,

104. "[...]unto the tempest shalt thou [...]!"

105. [And Tiamat hearkened unto] the word of the bright god, (and said):

106. "[...] shalt thou entrust! let us wage [war]!"

107. [...] the gods in the midst of [...]

108. [...] for the gods did she create.'

109. [They banded themselves together and] at the side of Tiamat [they] advanced;

110. [They were furious, they devised mischief without resting] night and [day].

111. [They prepared for battle], fuming and raging;

112. [They joined their forces] and made war.

113. [Ummu-Hubu]r, who formed all things,

114. [Made in addition] weapons invincible, she spawned monster-serpents,

115. [Sharp of] tooth, and merciless of fang;

116. [With poison instead of] blood she filled [their] bodies.

117. Fierce [monster-vipers] she clothed with terror,

118. [With splendour] she decked them, [she made them] of lofty stature.

119. [Whoever beheld] them, terror overcame him,

120. Their bodies reared up and none could withstand [their attack].

121. [She set] up vipers, and dragons, and the (monster) [Lahamu],

122. [And hurricanes], and raging hounds, and scorpion-men,

123. And mighty [tempests], and fish-men, and[rams];

124. [They bore] cruel weapons, without fear of [the fight].

125. Her commands [were mighty], [none] could resist them;

126. After this fashion, huge of stature, [she made] eleven (monsters).

127. Among the gods who were her sons, inasmuch as he had given [her support],

128. She exalted Kingu; in their midst [she raised] him [to power].

129. To march before the forces, to lead [the host],

130. To give the battle-signal, to advance to the attack,

131. To direct the battle, to control the fight,

132. Unto him she entrusted; in [costly raiment] she made him sit, (saying):

133. "I have uttered thy spell, in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power.

134. "The dominion over all the gods [have I entrusted unto him].

135. "Be thou exalted, thou my chosen spouse,

136. "May they magnify thy name over all [of them ... the Anunnaki]."

137. She gave him the Tablets of Destiny, on [his] breast she laid them, (saying):

138. "Thy command shall not be without avail, and[the word of thy mouth shall be established]."

139. Now Kingu, (thus) exalted, having received [the power of Anu],

140. [Decreed] the fate among the gods his sons, (saying):

141. "Let the opening of your mouth [quench] the Fire-god;

142. "Whoso is exalted in the battle, let him [display (his) might]!"

When on high the heaven had not been named,[2]
Firm ground below had not been called by name,
Naught but primordial Apsu, their begetter, (And) Mummu[3]
Tiamat, she who bore them all,
Their waters commingling as a single body,[4]
No reed but had been matted, no marsh land had appeared,
When no gods whatever had been brought into being,
Un-named, their destinies yet undermined—
Then it was that the gods were emerged from within them.
Lahmu and Lahamu were came forth, were called by name,
Before they had grown in age and statue.
Anshar and Kishar were shaped, more mighty than the others.
They extended the days, added on the years.
Anu was their heir, rival of his father;
Verily, Anu, Anshar’s first-born, was his equal.
Anu sired his image Nudimmud.[5]
This Nudimmud was the master of his father,[6]
Of broad wisdom, understanding, mighty in strength,
Mightier by far than his grandfather, Anshar.
He had no rival among the gods, his brothers.
The divine brothers[7] banded together,
They disturbed Tiamat as they rushed here and there,
Indeed, they distraught and tormented Tiamat
By their boisterous mirth in the dwelling of Heaven.
Apsu could not diminish their clamor
And Tiamat was dumbfounded at their ways.
Their doings were loathsome to him.
Offensive and overbearing were their ways.
Then Apsu, the begetter of great gods,
Cried out, addressing Mummu, his vizier:
“0 Mummu, my vizier, who rejoices my spirit,
Come hither and let us go to Tiamat!”
They went and sat down before Tiamat,
Exchanging counsel about the gods, their offspring.
Apsu, opening his mouth,
Said unto radiant Tiamat:
“Their ways are truly abominable unto me.
By day I find no relief, nor r
Their ways indeed are most troublesome, but let us practice kindness!”
Then answered Mummu, giving counsel to Apsu;
Rude and ungracious was Mummu’s advice
“Destroy, my father, their rebellious ways.
Then shall you have relief by day and rest by night!”
When Apsu heard this, his face grew luminous
Because of the evil he planned against his godly sons.
He embraced Mummu by the neck
As he sat down on his knees to kiss him.
Now whatever they had plotted between them,
Was repeated unto the gods, their first-born.
When the gods heard this, they were astonished,
Then lapsed into silence and remained speechless.
Superior in wisdom, accomplished and resourceful,
Ea, the all-wise, saw through their design.
Made artful his spell against it, surpassing and holy.
He recited it and made it subsist in the deep,
As he poured sleep upon him. Sound asleep he lay.
When he had made Apsu lie prone, deep in sleep,
Mummu, the advisor, was powerless to stir.
He[8] loosened Apsu’s band, tore off his tiara,
Removed his halo and put it on himself.
Having constrained Apsu, he slew him.
Mummu he bound and locked.
Having thus upon Apsu established his ascendance,
He laid hold of Mummu, holding him by the nose-rope.
After Ea had vanquished and tramped down his foes,
Had assured his triumph over his enemies,
In profound peace he rested in his sacred chamber,
He named it “Apsu,” for shrines he assigned it.
He founded his cult in that same place.
Ea and Damkina, his wife, dwelled there in splendor.
In the chamber of fates, the house of destinies,
A god was engendered, most able and wisest of gods.
In the heart of holy Apsu was Marduk created.
He who begot him was Ea, his father.

Tiamat renewed the conflict and created an army of monsters. This time even the great Ea could not withstand the attack and the gods decided to ask the young Marduk to defend them against Tiamat.


This Tablet II translation was published in 1902 by Leonard William King.[9]


1. Tiamat made weighty her handiwork,

2. [Evil] she wrought against the gods her children.

3. [To avenge] Apsû, Tiamat planned evil,

4. But how she had collected her [forces, the god ...] unto Ea divulged.

5. Ea [hearkened to] this thing, and

6. He was [grievous]ly afflicted and he sat in sorrow.

7. [The days] went by, and his anger was appeased,

8. And to [the place of] Anshar his father he took[his way].

9. [He went] and standing before Anshar, the father who begat him,

10. [All that] Tiamat had plotted he repeated unto him,

11. [Saying, "Ti]amat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us,

12. "With all her force she rageth, full of wrath.

13. "All the gods have turned to her,

14. "[With] those, whom ye created, they go at her side.

15. "They are banded together and at the side of Tiamat they advance;

16. "They are furious, they devise mischief without resting night and day.

17. "They prepare for battle, fuming and raging;

18. "They have joined their forces and are making war.

19. "Ummu-Hubur, who formed all things,

20. "Hath made in addition weapons invincible, she hath spawned monster-serpents,

21. "Sharp of tooth, and merciless of fang.

22. "With poison instead of blood she hath filled their bodies.

23. "Fierce monster-vipers she hath clothed with terror,

24. "With splendour she hath decked them, she hath made them of lofty stature.

25. "Whoever beholdeth them is overcome by terror,"

26. "Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attack.

27. "She hath set up vipers, and dragons, and the

28. "And hurricanes and raging hounds, and scorpion-men,

29. "And mighty tempests, and fish-men and rams;

30. "They bear cruel weapons, without fear of the fight.

31. "Her commands are mighty, none can resist them;

32. "After this fashion, huge of stature, hath she made eleven (monsters).

33. "Among the gods who are her sons, inasmuch as he hath given her support,

34. She hath exalted Kingu; in their midst she hath raised him to power.

35. "To march before the forces, to lead the host,

36. "To give the battle-signal, to advance to the attack,

37. "[To direct] the battle, to control the fight,

38. "Unto him [hath she entrusted]; in costly raiment she hath made him sit, (saying):

39. "'[I have uttered] thy [spell], in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power,

40. "'[The dominion over all] the gods have I entrusted [unto thee].

41. "'[Be thou exalted], thou [my chosen spouse],

42. "'[May they magnify thy name over all of them ...] ...'

43. "[She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny, on his breast she] laid them, (saying):

44. "'[Thy command shall not be without avail], and the [word] of thy mouth shall be established.'

45. "[Now Kingu, (thus) exalted], having received the power of Anu,

46. "Decreed the fate [for the gods, her sons], (saying):

47. "'Let [the opening of your mouth] quench the Fire-god;

48. "'[Whoso is exalted in the battle], let him display (his) might!'"

49. [When Anshar heard how Tiamat] was mightily in revolt,

50. [...], he bit his lips,

51. [...], his mind was not at peace,

52. His [...], he made a bitter lamentation:

53. [...] battle,

54. "[...] thou ....

55. "[Mummu and] Apsû thou hast smitten,

56. "[But Tiamat hath exalted Kin]gu, and where is one who can oppose her?"

57. [...] deliberation

58. [ ... the ... of] the gods, N[u]di[mmud]

[A gap of about ten lines occurs here.]

(69) [...]

(70) [...]

(71) [...]

(72) [Anshar unto] his son addressed [the word]:

(73) "[...] ... my mighty hero,

(74) "[Whose] strength [is great] and whose onslaught cannot be withstood,

(75) "[Go] and stand before Tiamat,

(76) "[That] her spirit [may be appeased], that her heart may be merciful.

(77) "[But if] she will not hearken unto thy word,

(78) "Our [word] shalt thou speak unto her, that she may be pacified."

(79) [He heard the] word of his father Anshar

(80) And [he directed] his path to her, towards her he took the way.

(81) Anu [drew nigh], he beheld the muttering of Tiamat,

(82) [But he could not withstand her], and he turned back.

(83) [...] Anshar

(84) [...] he spake unto him:

(85) "[...] upon me

[A gap of about twenty lines occurs here.]

(104) [...]

(105) [...] an avenger [...]

(106) [...] va[liant]

(107) [...] in the place of his decision

(108) [...] he spake unto him:

(109) "[...] thy father

(110) "Thou art my son, who maketh merciful his heart.

(111) " [...] to the battle shalt thou draw nigh,

(112) "[...] he that shall behold thee shall have peace."

(113) And the lord rejoiced at the word of his father,

(114) And he drew nigh and stood before Anshar.

(115) Anshar beheld him and his heart was filled with joy,

(116) He kissed him on the lips and his fear departed from him.

(117) "[O my father], let not the word of thy lips be overcome,

(118) "Let me go, that I may accomplish all that is in thy heart.

(119). "[O Anshar], let not the word of thy lips be overcome,

(120) ". [Let me] go, that I may accomplish all that is in thy heart."

(121) "What man is it, who hath brought thee forth to battle?

(122) "[...] Tiamat, who is a woman, is armed and attacketh thee."

(123) "[...] ... rejoice and be glad;

(124) "The neck of Tiamat shalt thou swiftly trample under foot.

(125) "[...] ... rejoice and be glad;

(126) "[The neck] of Tiamat shalt thou swiftly trample under foot.

(127) "O my [son], who knoweth all wisdom,

(128) "Pacify [Tiama]t with thy pure incantation.

(129) "Speedily set out upon thy way,

(130) "For [thy blood (?)] shall not be poured out, thou shalt return again."

(131) The lord rejoiced at the word of his father,

(132) His heart exulted, and unto his father he spake:

(133) "O Lord of the gods, Destiny of the great gods,

(134) "If I, your avenger,

(135) "Conquer Tiamat and give you life,

(136) "Appoint an assembly, make my fate preeminent and proclaim it.

(137) "In Upshukkinaku seat yourselves joyfully together,

(138) "With my word in place of you will I decree fate.

(139) "May whatsoever I do remain unaltered,

(140) "May the word of my lips never be changed nor made of no avail."

Tablet 2 snippets from California State University, The Enuma Elish (PDF) (short version).


Lord Anshar, father of the gods, rose up in grandeur,

And having pondered in his heart, he said to the Anunnaki:[10]

“He whose strength is potent shall be our avenger,

He who is sharp in battle, Marduk, the hero!”

Ea called Marduk into his secluded presence.

Giving counsel, he told him what was in his heart.


Marduk came forth, the wisest of the gods, your son,

His heart prompted him to face Tiamat.

He opened his mouth, saying to me

“If indeed as your avenger,

I am to vanquish Tiamat and save your lives,

Convene the assembly and proclaim supreme my destiny!

When jointly in Ubshukinna[11] you sat down rejoicing,

Let my word, instead of yours, determine the fates.

What I may bring into being shall be unchangeable;

Neither dismissed nor replaced shall be the command of my lips!”

Now hasten hither and promptly fix for him your decrees,

That he may go forth to face your mighty foe!


This Tablet III translation was published in 1902 by Leonard William King.[12]


1. Anshar opened his mouth, and

2. [Unto Gaga], his [minister], spake the word:

3. "[O Gaga, thou minis]ter that rejoicest my spirit,

4. [Unto Lahmu and Lah]amu will I send thee.

5. "[...] thou canst attain,

6. [...] thou shalt cause to be brought before thee.

7. [... let] the gods, all of them,

8. "[Make ready for a feast], at a banquet let them sit,

9. "[Let them eat bread], let them mix wine,

10. [That for Marduk], their avenger, they may decree the fate.

11. "[Go,] Gaga, stand before them,

12. [And all that] I, tell thee, repeat unto them, (and say):

13. "[Anshar], your son, hath sent me,

14. "[The purpose] of his heart he hath made known unto me.

15. "[He saith that Tia]mat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us,

16. "[With all] her force she rageth, full of wrath.

17. "All the gods have turned to her,

18. "With those, whom ye created, they go at her side.

19. They are banded together, and at the side of Tiamat they advance;

20 . "They are furious, they devise mischief without resting night and day.

21. They prepare for battle, fuming and raging;

22. "They have joined their forces and are making war.

23. "Ummu-Hubur, who formed all things,

24. "Hath made in addition weapons invincible, she hath spawned monster-serpents,

25. "Sharp of tooth and merciless of fang.

26. "With poison instead of blood she hath filled heir bodies.

27. "Fierce monster-vipers she hath clothed with terror,

28. "With splendour she hath decked them, she hath made them of lofty stature.

29. "Whoever beholdeth them, terror overcometh him,

30. "Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attack.

31. "She hath set up vipers, and dragons, and the (monster) Lahamu,

32. "And hurricanes, and raging hounds, and scorpion-men,

33. "And mighty tempests, and fish-men, and rams;

34. They bear merciless weapons, without fear of the fight.

35. "Her commands are mighty, none can resist them;

36. "After this fashion, huge of stature, hath she made eleven (monsters).

37. "Among the gods who are her sons, inasmuch as he hath given her [support],

38. "She hath exalted Kingu; in their midst she hath raised [him] to power.

39. To march before the forces, [to lead the host],

40. "[To] give the battle-signal, to advance [to the attack],

41. "[To direct] the battle, to control the [fight],

42. "Unto him [hath she entrusted; in costly raiment] she hath made him sit, (saying):

43. "'[I have] uttered thy spell, in the assembly of the gods [I have raised thee to power],

44. "'[The] dominion over all the gods [have I entrusted unto thee].

45. "'[Be] thou exalted, [thou] my chosen spouse,

46. "' May they magnify thy name over all of [them ... the Anunnaki].'

47. "She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny, on his breast she laid them, (saying):

48. "'Thy command shall not be without avail, and the word of [thy] mouth shall be established.'

49. "Now Kingu, (thus) exalted, having received [the power of Anu],

50. "Decreed the fate for the gods, her sons, (saying):

51. "'Let the opening of your mouth quench the Fire-god;

52. "'Whoso is exalted in the battle, let him display (his) might! '

53. I sent Anu, but he could not withstand her;

54. "Nudimmud was afraid and turned back.

55. "But Marduk hath set out, the director of the gods, your son;

56. To set out against Tiamat his heart hath prompted (him).

57. "He opened his mouth and spake unto me, (saying):

58. "'If I, your avenger,

59. "'Conquer Tiamat and give you life,

60. "'Appoint an assembly, make my fate preeminent and proclaim it.

61. "'In Upshukkinaku seat yourselves joyfully together;

62. "'With my word in place of you will I decree fate.

63. "'May whatsoever I do remain unaltered,

64. "'May the word of my lips never be changed nor made of no avail.'

65. "Hasten, therefore, and swiftly decree for him the fate which you bestow,

66. "That he may go and fight your strong enemy!"

67. Gaga went, he took his way and

68. Humbly before Lahmu and Lahamu, the gods, his fathers,

69. He made obeisance, and he kissed the ground at their feet.

70. He humbled himself; then he stood up and spake unto them, (saying):

71. "Anshar, your son, hath sent me,

72. The purpose of his heart he hath made known unto me.

73. "He saith that Tiamat our mother hath conceived a hatred for us,

74. "With all her force she rageth, full of wrath.

75. "All the gods have turned to her,

76. "With those, whom ye created, they go at her side.

77. "They are banded together and at the side of Tiamat they advance;

78. They are furious, they devise mischief without resting night and day.

79. "They prepare for battle, fuming and raging;

80. They have joined their forces and are making war.

81. Ummu-Hubur, who formed all things,

82. "Hath made in addition weapons invincible, she hath spawned monster-serpents,

83. "Sharp of tooth and merciless of fang.

84. "With poison instead of blood she hath filled their bodies.

85. Fierce monster-vipers she hath clothed with terror,

86. "With splendour she hath decked them, she hath made them of lofty stature.

87. Whoever beholdeth them, terror overcometh him,

88. "Their bodies rear up and none can withstand their attack.

89. She hath set up vipers, and dragons, and the (monster) Lahamu,

90. "And hurricanes, and raging hounds, and scorpion-men,

91. And mighty tempests, and fish-men, and [rams];

92. "They bear merciless weapons, without fear of the fight.

93. "Her commands are mighty, none can resist them;

94. After this fashion, huge of stature, hath she made eleven (monsters).

95. Among the gods who are her sons, inasmuch as he hath given her support,

96. "She hath exalted Kingu; in their midst she hath raised him to power.

97. "To march before the forces, to lead the host,

98. To give the battle-signal, to advance to the attack,

99. "To direct the battle, to control the fight,

100. Unto him hath she entrusted; in costly raiment she hath made him sit, (saying):

101. "'I have uttered thy spell, in the assembly of the gods I have raised thee to power,

102. "'The dominion over all the gods have I entrusted unto thee.

103. "'Be thou exalted, thou my chosen spouse,

104. "'May they magnify thy name over all of them ... the Anunna[ki].'

105. "She hath given him the Tablets of Destiny, on [his] breast [she laid them], (saying):

106. "'Thy command shall not be without avail, [and the word of thy mouth shall be established].

107. "Now Kingu, (thus) exalted, [having received the power of Anu],

108. "[Decreed the fate] for the gods, her sons, (saying):

109. "'Let the opening of your mouth [quench] the Fire-god;

110. "'Whoso is exalted in the battle, [let him display] (his) might!'

111. "I sent Anu, but he could not [withstand her];

112. "Nudimmud was afraid and [turned back].

113. "But Marduk hath set out, the director of the[gods, your son];

114. "T o set out against Tiamat [his heart hath prompted (him)].

115. "He opened his mouth [and spake unto me], (saying):

116. "'If I, [your avenger],

117. "'Conquer Tiamat and [give you life],

118. "'Appoint an assembly, [make my fate preeminent and proclaim it].

119. "'In Upshukkinaku [seat yourselves joyfully together];

120. "'With my word in place of [you will I decree fate].

121. "'May whatsoever [I] do remain unaltered,

122. "'May the word of [my lips] never be changed nor made of no avail.'

123. Hasten, therefore, and swiftly [decree for him] the fate which you bestow,

124. "That he may go and fight your strong enemy!"

125. Lahmu and Lahamu heard and cried aloud,

126. All of the Igigi wailed bitterly, (saying):

127. What has been altered so that they should ... [...]

128. We do not understand the d[eed] of Tiamat!"

129. Then did they collect and go,

130. The great gods, all of them, who decree [fate].

131. They entered in before Anshar, they filled [...];

132. They kissed one another, in the assembly [...].

133. They made ready for the feast, at the banquet [they sat];

134. They ate bread, they mixed [sesame-wine].

135. The sweet drink, the mead, confused their [...],

136. They were drunk with drinking, their bodies were filled.

137. They were wholly at ease, their spirit was exalted;

138. Then for Marduk, their avenger, did they decree the fate.


This Tablet IV translation was published in 1902 by Leonard William King.[13]


1. They prepared for him a lordly chamber,

2 . Before his fathers as prince he took his place.

3. "Thou art chiefest among the great gods,

4. "Thy fate is unequalled, thy word is Anu!

5. "O Marduk, thou art chiefest among the great gods,

6. "Thy fate is unequalled, thy word is Anu!

7. "Henceforth not without avail shall be thy command,

8. "In thy power shall it be to exalt and to abase.

9. "Established shall be the word of thy mouth, irresistible shall be thy command;

10. "None among the gods shall transgress thy boundary.

11. "Abundance, the desire of the shrines of the gods,

12. "Shall be established in thy sanctuary, even though they lack (offerings).

13. "O Marduk, thou art our avenger!

14. "We give thee sovereignty over the whole world.

15. "Sit thou down in night, be exalted in thy command.

16. "Thy weapon shall never lose its power, it shall crush thy foe.

17. "O lord, spare the life of him that putteth his trust in thee,

18. "But as for the god who began the rebellion, pour out his life."

19. Then set they in their midst a garment,

20. And unto Marduk their first-born they spake:

21. "May thy fate, O lord, be supreme among the gods,

22. "To destroy and to create; speak thou the word, and (thy command) shall be fulfilled.

23. "Command now and let the garment vanish;

24. "And speak the word again and let the garment reappear!"

25. Then he spake with his mouth, and the garment vanished;

26. Again he commanded it, and the garment reappeared.

27. When the gods, his fathers, beheld (the fulfilment of) his word,

28. They rejoiced, and they did homage (unto him, saying), " Marduk is king! "

29. They bestowed upon him the sceptre, and the throne, and the ring,

30. They give him an invincible weapon, which overwhelmeth the foe.

31. "Go, and cut off the life of Tiamat,

32. "And let the wind carry her blood into secret places."

33. After the gods his fathers had decreed for the lord his fate,

34. They caused him to set out on a path of prosperity and success.

35 . He made ready the bow, he chose his weapon,

36. He slung a spear upon him and fastened it . . .

37. He raised the club, in his right hand he grasped (it),

38. The bow and the quiver he hung at his side.

39. He set the lightning in front of him,

40. With burning flame he filled his body.

41. He made a net to enclose the inward parts of Tiamat,

42. The four winds he stationed so that nothing of her might escape;

43. The South wind and the North wind and the East wind and the West wind

44. He brought near to the net, the gift of his father Anu.

45. He created the evil wind, and the tempest, and the hurricane,

46. And the fourfold wind, and the sevenfold wind, and the whirlwind, and the wind which had no equal;

47. He sent forth the winds which he had created, the seven of them;

48. T o disturb the inward parts of Tiamat, they followed after him.

49. Then the lord raised the thunderbolt, his mighty weapon,

50. He mounted the chariot, the storm unequalled for terror,

51. He harnessed and yoked unto it four horses,

52. Destructive, ferocious, overwhelming, and swift of pace;

53. [...] were their teeth, they were flecked with foam;

54. They were skilled in [...], they had been trained to trample underfoot.

55. [...], mighty in battle,

56. Left and [right ...

57. His garment was [...], he was clothed with terror,

58. With overpowering brightness his head was crowned.

59. Then he set out, he took his way,

60. And towards the [rag]ing Tiamat he set his face.

61. On his lips he held [...],

62. ... [...] he grasped in his hand.

63. Then they beheld him, the gods beheld him,

64. The gods his fathers beheld him, the gods beheld him.

65. And the lord drew nigh, he gazed upon the inward parts of Tiamat,

66. He perceived the muttering of Kingu, her spouse.

67. As (Marduk) gazed, (Kingu) was troubled in his gait,

68. His will was destroyed and his motions ceased.

69. And the gods, his helpers, who marched by his side,

70. Beheld their leader's [...], and their sight was troubled.

71. But Tiamat [...], she turned not her neck,

72. With lips that failed not she uttered rebellious words:

73. "[...] thy coming as lord of the gods,

74. "From their places have they gathered, in thy place are they!"

75. Then the lord [raised] the thunderbolt, his mighty weapon,

76. [And against] Tiamat, who was raging, thus he sent (the word):

77. "[Thou] art become great, thou hast exalted thyself on high,

78. "And thy [heart hath prompted] thee to call to battle.

79. "[...] their fathers [...],

80. "[...] their [...] thou hatest [...].

81. "[Thou hast exalted King]u to be [thy] spouse,

82. "[Thou hast . . . ] him, that, even as Anu, he should issue decrees.

83. "[...] thou hast followed after evil,

84. "And [against] the .gods my fathers thou hast contrived thy wicked plan.

85. "Let then thy host be equipped, let thy weapons be girded on!

86. "Stand! I and thou, let us join battle!"

87. When Tiamat heard these words,

88. She was like one possessed, she lost her reason.

89. Tiamat uttered wild, piercing cries,

90. She trembled and shook to her very foundations.

91. She recited an incantation, she pronounced her spell,

92. And the gods of the battle cried out for their weapons.

93. Then advanced Tiamat and Marduk, the counsellor of the gods;

94. To the fight they came on, to the battle they drew nigh.

95. The lord spread out his net and caught her,

96. And the evil wind that was behind (him) he let loose in her face.

97. As Tiamat opened her mouth to its full extent,

98. He drove in the evil wind, while as yet she had not shut her lips.

99. The terrible winds filled her belly,

100. And her courage was taken from her, and her mouth she opened wide.

101. He seized the spear and burst her belly,

102. He severed her inward parts, he pierced (her) heart.

103. He overcame her and cut off her life;

104. He cast down her body and stood upon it.

105. When he had slain Tiamat, the leader,

106. Her might was broken, her host was scattered.

107. And the gods her helpers, who marched by her side,

108. Trembled, and were afraid, and turned back.

109. They took to flight to save their lives;

110. But they were surrounded, so that they could not escape.

111. He took them captive, he broke their weapons;

112. In the net they were caught and in the snare they sat down.

113. The [...] ... of the world they filled with cries of grief.

114. They received punishment from him, they were held in bondage.

115. And on the eleven creatures which she had filled with the power of striking terror,

116. Upon the troop of devils, who marched at her [...],

117. He brought affliction, their strength [he ...];

118. Them and their opposition he trampled under his feet.

119. Moreover, Kingu, who had been exalted over them,

120. He conquered, and with the god Dug-ga he counted him.

121. He took from him the Tablets of Destiny that were not rightly his,

122. He sealed them with a seal and in his own breast he laid them.

123. Now after the hero Marduk had conquered and cast down his enemies,

124. And had made the arrogant foe even like ...,

125. And had fully established Anshar's triumph over the enemy,

126. And had attained the purpose of Nudimmud,

127. Over the captive gods he strengthened his durance,

128. And unto Tiamat, whom he had conquered, he returned.

129. And the lord stood upon Tiamat's hinder parts,

130. And with his merciless club he smashed her skull.

131. He cut through the channels of her blood,

132. And he made the North wind bear it away into secret places.

133. His fathers beheld, and they rejoiced and were glad;

134. Presents and gifts they brought unto him.

135. Then the lord rested, gazing upon her dead body,

136. While he divided the flesh of the ..., and devised a cunning plan.

137. He split her up like a flat fish into two halves;

138. One half of her he stablished as a covering for heaven.

139. He fixed a bolt, he stationed a watchman,

140. And bade them not to let her waters come forth.

141. He passed through the heavens, he surveyed the regions (thereof),

142. And over against the Deep he set the dwelling of Nudimmud.

143. And the lord measured the structure of the Deep,

144. And he founded E-shara, a mansion like unto it.

145. The mansion E-shara which he created as heaven,

146. He caused Anu, Bêl, and Ea in their districts to inhabit.

This Tablet VI translation is taken from California State University, The Enuma Elish (PDF).[14]

They erected for him a ample throne.
Facing his fathers, he sat down, presiding.
“You are the most honored of the great gods,
Your decree is unrivaled, your command is Anu[15]
You, Marduk are the most honored of the great gods,
Your decree is unrivaled, your word is Anu.
From this day unchangeable shall be your pronouncement.
To raise or bring low—these shall be in your hand.
Your utterance shall be true, your command shall be unimpeachable.
No one among the gods shall transgress your bounds!
Adornment being wanted for the seats of the gods,
Let the place of their shrines ever be in your place.
O Marduk, you are indeed our avenger.
We have granted you kingship over the entire universe.
Your word shall be supreme when you sit in assembly.
Your weapons shall not fail; they shall smash your foes!
O lord, spare the life of him who trusts you,
But pour out the life[16] of the god who seized evil.”
Having placed in their midst a piece of cloth,
They addressed themselves to Marduk, their first-born
“Lord, truly your decree is first among gods.
Say but to wreck or create; it shall be.
Open your mouth; the cloth will vanish!
Speak again, and the cloth shall be whole!”
At the word emerged from his mouth the cloth vanished.
He spoke again, his fathers, saw the outcome of his word,
When the gods, his fathers, saw the outcome of his word,
Joyfully they paid homage: “Marduk is king!”
They conferred on him scepter, throne, and vestment;
They gave him unequaled weapons that ward off the foes:
“Go and terminate the life of Tiamat.
May the winds bear her blood to places undisclosed.”
Marduk’s destiny thus fixed, the gods, his fathers,
Caused him to go the way of success and achievement.
He constructed a bow, marked it as his weapon,
Attached thereto the arrow, grasped it in his right hand;
He raised the mace, grasped it in his right hand;
He hung bow and quiver at his side.
In front of him he sat the lightening,
He filled his body with blazing flame.
He then made a net to enfold Tiamat,
He stationed the four winds that nothing of her might escape,
The South Wind, the North Wind, the East Wind, the West Wind.
Close to his side he held the net, the gift of his father, Anu.
He brought forth Imhullu “the Evil Wind,” the Whirlwind, the Hurricane,
The Fourfold Wind, the Sevenfold Wind, the Cyclone, the Matchless Wind;
Then he sent forth the seven winds he had brought forth.
To sir up the inside of Tiamat they rose up behind him.
Then the lord raised up the flood-storm, his mighty weapon.
He mounted the storm-chariot irresistible and terrifying.
He harnessed and yoked to it a team-of-four,
The Killer, the Relentless, the Trampler, the Swift.
Sharp were their poison bearing teeth.
They were versed in ravage, skilled in destruction.
On his right he posted the Smiter, fearsome in battle,
On the left the Combat, which repels all the zealous.
His cloak was an armor of terror,
His head was turbaned with his fearsome halo.
The lord went forth and followed his course,
He set his face Towards the raging Tiamat.
He held a spell between his lips;
A plant to put out poison was grasped in his hand.
Then they milled about him, the gods milled about him,
The gods, his fathers, milled about him, the gods milled about him.
The lord approached to scan the inside of Tiamat,
(And) of Kingu, her consort, the scheme to perceive.
As Marduk looks on, Kingu’s course becomes upset,
His will is distracted and his maneuvers are confused.
And when the gods, his helpers, who marched at his side,
Saw the valiant hero, blurred became their vision.
Without turning her neck, Tiamat emitted a cry,
Molding savage defiance in her lips:
“Too important are you for the lord of the gods to rise up against you!
Is it in their place that they have gathered, or in your place?”
Thereupon the lord raised his mighty weapon, the flood storm,
And to enraged Tiamat he spoke the following words:
“Why have you risen, why have you arrogantly exalted?
You have charged your own heart to stir up conflict,
[. . .][17] sons reject their own fathers,
While you, who have born them, has foresworn love!
You have appointed Kingu as your consort,
Conferring upon him the rank of Anu, not rightfully his,
Against Anshar, king of the gods, you seek evil;
Against the gods, my fathers, you have confirmed your wickedness.
Though you have drawn up your forces, readied your weapons,
Stand alone, that I and you may meet in single combat!”
When Tiamat head this,
She was like one possessed; she took leave of her senses.
In fury Tiamat cried out aloud.
To the roots of her legs shook both together.
She recites a charm, keeps casting her spell,
While the gods of battle sharpen their weapons.
Tiamat and Mardulc, wisest of gods then joined battle,
They strove in single combat, locked in conflict.
The lord spread out his net to enfold her,
He let loose in her face The Evil Wind, which followed behind.
When Tiamat opened her mouth to consume him,
He drove in the Evil Wind and she could not dose her lips.
As the fierce winds encumbered her belly,
Her body was distended and her mouth was wide open.
He released an arrow, it tore her belly,
It cut through her insides, splitting her heart.
Having subdued her, he blotted out her life.
He threw down her carcass and stood upon it.
After he had slain Tiamat, the leader,
Her band was shattered, her troupe broken up;[18] Tiamat’s new husband and general.
And her helpers, the gods who marched at her side,
Trembled with terror and turned their backs,
In order to save and preserve their lives.
Encirded tightly, they could not escape.
He made them captives and he smashed their weapons.
They found themselves ensnared in the net;
Thrown into cells, they were filled with wailing;
Bearing his wrath, they were held imprisoned.
And the eleven creatures which she had charged with awe,
The band of demons that marched before her,
He cast into fetters, their hands [. . .].
For all their resistance, he trampled them underfoot.
And Kingu, who had been made chief among them,
He bound and accounted him to Uggae.[19]
He took from him the Tables of Fate, not rightfully his,
Sealed them with a seal and fastened them on his own breast.
When he had vanquished and subdued his adversaries,
Had [. . .] the vainglorious foe,
Had wholly established Anshar’s triumph over the foe,
Nudimmud’s desire had achieved, valiant Marduk
Strengthened his hold on the vanquished gods,
And turned back to Tiamat whom he had bound.
The lord trampled on the legs of Tiamat,
With his unsparing mace he crushed her skull.
When the arteries of her blood he had severed,
The North Wind bore it to places undisclosed.
On seeing this, his fathers were joyful and jubilant,
They brought gifts of homage to him.
Then the lord paused to view her dead body,
That he might divide the monster and do artful works.
He split her like a shellfish into two parts:
Half of her he sat up as the ceiling of the sky,
He pulled down the bar and posted guards.
He ordered them not to allow her waters to escape.
He crossed the heavens and surveyed the regions.
He squared Apsu’s quarter, the abode of Nudimmud,
As the lord measured the dimensions of Apsu.
The Great Abode, its likeness, he fixed as Esharra,[20]
The Great Abode, Esharra, which he made the firmament.
Anu, Enlil, and Ea he made occupy their places.
He constructed stations for the gods,
Aligning their astral likenesses as constellations.
He determined the year by assigning the zones:
He set up three constellations for each of the twelve months.
After defining the days of the years by means of astrological figures,
He founded the station of Nebiru[21] to determine their divine bands,
That none might transgress or fall short.
Alongside it he set up the stations of Enlil and Ea.
Having opened up the gates on both sides,[22]
He strengthened the locks to the left and the right.
In her belly he established the zenith.
The moon he caused to shine, the night to him entrusting.
He appointed him a creature of the night to signify the days:
“Monthly, without cease, from designs with a crown.
At the month’s very start, rising over the land,
You shall have luminous horns to signify six days,
On the seventh day reaching a half-crown.
At full moon stand in opposition in mid-month.
When the sun overtakes you at the base of heaven,
Diminish your crown and retrogress in light.
At the time of disappearance approach you the course of the sun,
And on the twenty-ninth you again stand in opposition to the sun.”

Snippet from CSUN (out-of-place translation)
“It was Kingu who contrived the uprising,
And caused Tiamat to rebel, and join battle”
They bound him, holding him before Ea.
They imposed on him his guilt and severed his blood vessels.
Out of his blood they fashioned humankind.
He[23] you sat down rejoicing, imposed upon it the service and let free the gods.
After Ea, the wise, had created humankind,
Had imposed upon it the service of the gods—
That toil was beyond human comprehension;
As artfully planned by Marduk, did Nudimmud create it
Marduk, the king of the gods divided
All the Anunnaki[24] above and below.
He assigned them to Anu to guard his instructions.
Three hundred in the heavens he stationed as a guard.


Tablet V consists of Lines 1 to 26 published by Leonard William King (1902).[25]

Fragment 1Edit

Lines 1 to 26

He.(i.e. Marduk) made the stations for the great gods;

The stars, their images, as the stars of the Zodiac, he fixed.

He ordained the year and into sections he divided it;

For the twelve months he fixed three stars.

After he had [...] the days of the year [...] images,

He founded the station of Nibir[26] to determine their bounds;

That none might err or go astray,

He set the station of Bêl and Ea along with him.

He opened great gates on both sides,

He made strong the bolt on the left and on the right.

In the midst thereof he fixed the zenith;

The Moon-god he caused to shine forth, the night he entrusted to him.

He appointed him, a being of the night, to determine the days;

Every month without ceasing with the crown he covered(?) him, (saying):

"At the beginning of the month, when thou shinest upon the land,

"Thou commandest the horns to determine six days,

"And on the seventh day to [divide] the crown.

"On the fourteenth day thou shalt stand opposite, the half [...].

"When the Sun-god on the foundation of heaven [...] thee,

"The [...] thou shalt cause to ..., and thou shalt make his [...].

"[...] ... unto the path of the Sun-god shalt thou cause to draw nigh,

"[And on the ... day] thou shalt stand opposite, and the Sun-god shall ... [...]

"[...] to traverse her way.

"[...] thou shalt cause to draw nigh, and thou shalt judge the right.

"[...] to destroy

"[...] me.

Fragment 2Edit

  • Lines 66 to 87 (twenty-two lines) found on K. 3,449a, may form part of the Fifth Tablet.[27]

Fragment 3Edit

  • Lines 128 to 140 (the last thirteen lines) of the Fifth Tablet are taken from the reverse of K. 11,641 and from the reverse of K. 8,526.[28]
  • Line 134[29]


This Tablet VI translation was published in 1902 by Leonard William King.[30]


1. When Marduk heard the word of the gods,

2. His heart prompted him and he devised [a cunning plan].

3. He opened his mouth and unto Ea [he spake],

4. [That which] he had conceived in his heart he imparted [unto him]:

5. "My blood will I take and bone will I [fashion],

6. "I will make man, that man may ... [...].

7. "I will create man who shall inhabit [the earth],"

8. "That the service of the gods may be established, and that [their] shrines 1 [may be built].

9. "But I will alter the ways of the gods, and I will change [their paths];

10. "Together shall they be oppressed 2, and unto evil shall [they ...]."

11. And Ea answered him and spake the word:

12. "[...] the [...] of the gods I have [changed]

13. [...] ... and one ... [...]

14. [...shall be de]stroyed and men will I [...]

15. [...] and the gods [...]

16. [...] ... and they [...]

17. [...] ... and the gods [...]

18. [...] .... [...]

19. [...] the gods [...]

20. [...] the Anunnaki [...]

21. [...] ... [...]

[The rest of the text is wanting 1 with the exception of the last few lines of the tablet, which read as follows.]

138. [...] ... [...]

139. [...] ... [...]

140. When [...] ... [...]

141. They rejoiced [...] ... [...]

142. In Upshukkinnaku they set [their dwelling].

143. Of the heroic son, their avenger, [they cried]:

144. "We, whom he succoured, ... [...]!"

145. They seated themselves and in the assembly they named [him ...],

146. They all [cried aloud (?), they exalted [him ...]. 2

FootnotesEdit

89:1 ... literally the line reads "Let the service of the gods be established, and as for them let [their] shrines be built. It is interesting to note the reason that is here implied for the creation of mankind, i.e., that the gods my have worshipers. There is clearly a reference to this in l. 29 of the Seventh Tablet, where, after referring to Marduk's mercy upon the gods, the text goes on ... "For their forgiveness did he create mankind."

89:2 It seems preferable to assign to the Piel of [kabâtu] its usual meaning "to oppress," rather than to render the passage as "Together shall they be honoured." The sense seems to be that Marduk, by the creation of man, will establish the worship of the gods, but at the same time will punish the gods for their complaints. It is possible that in his speech that follows Ea dissuades Marduk from carrying out the second part of his proposal.

91:1 It is probable that the missing portion of the text corresponded closely with the account of the creation of man and animals given by Berossus; for a further discussion of this subject, see the Introduction. The tablet K. 3,364 (Cun. Texts, part xiii, pl. 24 f.) has been thought to belong to the Creation Series, and to contain the instructions given by Marduk to man after his creation. Had this been so, it would have formed part of the Sixth Tablet. On plates lxiv ff. of Vol. II is published the text of a Neo-Babylonian tablet, No. 33,851, which gives a duplicate text to K. 3,364; and in Appendix II I have given reasons for believing that the text inscribed upon K. 3,364 and No. 33,851 has no connection with the Creation Series, but is part of a long composition containing moral precepts. Another fragment which it has been suggested belongs to one of the later tablets of the Creation Series is K. 3,445 + R. 396 (Cun. Texts, part xiii, pl. 24 f.; cf. also its duplicate K. 14,949, pl. 24); but there are strong reasons against the identification of the text as a fragment of the series Enuma elish, though it may well be part of a parallel version of the Creation story (see further, Appendix II).

91:2 The address of the gods to Marduk forms the subject of the Seventh Tablet of the series.


This Tablet VII translation was published in 1902 by Leonard William King.[31]


1. O Asari, "Bestower of planting," "[Founder of sowing],"

2. "Creator of grain and plants," "who caused [the green herb to spring up]!"

3. O Asaru-alim, "who is revered in the house of counsel," "[who aboundeth in counsel],"

4. The gods paid homage, fear [took hold upon them]!

5. O Asaru-alim-nuna, "the mighty one," "the Light of [the father who begat him],"

6. Who directeth the decrees of Anu, Bel, [and Ea]!"

7. He was their patron, he ordained [their . . . . ];

8. He, whose provision is abundance, goeth forth [...]!

9. Tutu [is] 1 "He who created them anew;"

10. Should their wants be pure, then are they [satisfied];

11. Should he make an incantation, then are the gods [appeased];

12 . Should they attack him in anger, he withstandeth [their onslaught]!

13. Let him therefore be exalted, and in the assembly of the gods [let him ...];

14. None among the gods can [rival him]!

15. Tutu is Zi-ukkina, "the Life of the host [of the gods],"

16. Who established for the gods the bright heavens.

17. He set them on their way, and ordained [their path (?)]

18. Never shall his [...] deeds be forgotten among men.

19. Tutu as Zi-azag thirdly they named, "the Bringer 1 of Purification,"

20. "The God of the Favouring Breeze," "the Lord of Hearing and Mercy,"

21. "The Creator of Fulness and Abundance," "the Founder of Plenteousness,"

22. "Who increaseth all that is small."

23. "In sore distress we felt his favouring breeze,"

24. Let them say, let them pay reverence, let them bow in humility before him!

25. Tutu as Aga-azag may mankind fourthly magnify!

26. "The Lord of the Pure Incantation," "the Quickener of the Dead,"

27. "Who had mercy upon the captive gods,"

28. "Who removed the yoke from upon the gods his enemies,"

29. "For their forgiveness did he create mankind,"

30. "The Merciful One, with whom it is to bestow life!"

31. May his deeds endure, may they never be forgotten

32. In the mouth of mankind 1 whom his hands have made!

33. Tutu as Mu-azag, fifthly, his "Pure Incantation" may their mouth proclaim,

34. "Who through his Pure Incantation hath destroyed all the evil ones!"

35. Shag-zu, "who knoweth the heart of the gods," "who seeth through the innermost part!"

36. "The evil-doer he hath not caused to go forth with him!"

37. "Founder of the assembly of the gods," "[who ...] their heart! "

38. "Subduer of the disobedient," "[...]!"

39. "Who rebellion and [...]!"

41. Tutu as Zi-si, "the [...],

42. "Who put an end to anger," "[who ...]!"

43. Tutu as Suh-kur, thirdly, "the [Destroyer of the foe],"

44. "Who put their plans to confusion," "[...],"

45. "Who destroyed all the wicked," "[...],"

46. [...] let them [...]!

47. [...] ... [...]

[The following lines are taken from the fragment K. 12,830, but their position in the text is uncertain.]

[He named the four quarters (of the world)], mankind [he created],

[And upon] him understanding [...]

[...] ... [...]

[...] Tiamat [...]

[...] ... [...]

[...] distant [...]

[...] may [...].

[The following lines are taken from the fragment K. 13,761.]

[...]

(10) 1 [...]

"The mighty one [...]!"

... Agi[l ...],

"The Creator of [the earth ...]!"

Zulummu ... [...],

"The Giver of counsel and of whatsoever [...]!"

Mummu, "the Creator [of ...]!"

Mulil, the heavens [...], "Who for ... [...]!"

Gishkul, let [...],

(10) "Who brought the gods to naught[...]!"

Lugal-ab-[...],

"Who in [ ............ ]!"

Pap-[...],

"Who in [...]!"

[...]

[The following lines are taken from the fragment K. 8,519 and its duplicate K. 13,337; this portion of the text was not separated by much from that preserved by K. 13,761.]

[...].

[...] ...

[... the Chief (?) of] all lords,"

[... supreme] is his might!

[Lugal-durmah, "the King] 1 of the band of the gods," "the Lord of rulers,"

"Who is exalted in a royal habitation,"

"[Who] among the gods is gloriously supreme!"

[Adu-nuna], "the Counsellor of Ea," who created the gods his fathers,

Unto the path of whose majesty

[No] god can ever attain!

[... in] Dul-azag he made it known,

[...] pure is his dwelling!

[... the ...] of those without understanding is Lugal-dul-azaga!

[...] supreme is his might!

[...] their [...] in the midst of Tiamat,

[...] ... of the battle!

[The numbering of the following lines is based on the marginal numbers upon No. 91,139. + 93,073.]

105. [...] ... [...] him,

106. [...] ... the star, which [shineth in the heavens].

107. May he hold the Beginning and the Future 1, may they 2 pay homage unto him,

108. Saying, "He who forced his way through the midst of Tiamat [without resting],

109. "Let his name be Nibiru, 'the Seizer of the Midst'!

110. "For the stars of heaven he upheld the paths,

111. "He shepherded all the gods like sheep!

112. "He conquered Tiamat, he troubled and ended her life,"

113. In the future of mankind, when the days grow old,

114. May this be heard without ceasing, may it hold sway for ever!

115. Since he created the realm (of heaven) and fashioned the firm earth,

116. "The Lord of the World," the father Bêl hath called his name.

117. (This) title, which all the Spirits of Heaven proclaimed,

118. Did Ea hear, and his spirit was rejoiced, (and he said):

119. "He whose name his fathers have made glorious,

120. "Shall be even as I, his name shall be Ea!

121. "The binding of all my decrees shall he control,

122. "All my commands shall he make known! "

123. By the name of "Fifty" did the great gods

124. Proclaim his fifty names, they made his path pre-eminent." 1

Epilogue 125. Let them 2 be held in remembrance, and let the first man proclaim them;

126. Let the wise and the understanding consider them together!

127. Let the father repeat them and teach them to his son;

128. Let them be in the ears of the pastor and the shepherd!

129. Let a man rejoice in Marduk, the Lord of the gods,

130. That he may cause his land to be fruitful, and that he himself may have prosperity!

131. His word standeth fast, his command is unaltered;

132. The utterance of his mouth hath no god ever annulled.

133. He gazed in his anger, he turned not his neck;

134. When he is wroth, no god can withstand his indignation.

135. Wide is his heart, broad is his compassion;

136. The sinner and evil-doer in his presence [...].

137. They received instruction, they spake before him,

138. [...] unto [...].

139. [...] of Marduk may the gods [...].

140. [May] they [... his ] name [...]!

141. [...] they took and [...];

142. [...]! 1

FootnotesEdit

93:1 The title Tutu is there explained as ba-a-nu, " creator," while its two component parts (TU + TU) occur in the Sumerian version of the line as the equivalents of la-nu-u and e-di-shu.

97:1 The text of the commentary read mu-kin, i.e. "the Founder of Purification"; for other variant readings in the line, see Appendix I.

99:1 Literally, "the black-headed ones."

103:1 In the margin of the fragment K. 13,761 every tenth line is indicated by the figure "10."

105:1 The word durmahu was employed as a Babylonian priestly title. It may here be rendered by some such general phrase as "ruler," unless it is to be taken as a proper name.

107:1 ... The expression rêshu-arkât, literally "the beginning—the future," may be taken as implying Marduk's complete control over the world, both at its creation and during its subsequent existence. It is possible that s'u-nu is the pronominal suffix and should be attached to the preceding word, i.e. rêsh-arkâtu-shu-nu, "their beginning and future," that is, "the beginning and future of mankind."

107:2 I.e., mankind.

111:1 From the commentary R. 366, etc., and the explanatory text S. 747, it may be concluded that the Seventh Tablet, in its original form, ended at 1. 124. It is probable that ll. 125-142 were added as an epilogue at the time when the composition was incorporated in the Creation Series (see Appendix I).

111:2 I.e., the names of Marduk.

115:1 This is probably the last line of the tablet. It may here be noted that, for the text of the Seventh Tablet given in the preceding pages, only those fragments have been used which are proved by the commentaries to contain missing portions of the text. Several other fragments, which from their contents and style of writing may possibly belong to copies of the text, have not been. included. The text of one such fragment (S. 2,013) is of peculiar interest and is given in Appendix II; in l. 10 f. it refers to Ti-amat e-li-ti and Ti-amat shap-li-ti, "The Ocean (Tiamat) which is above" and "The Ocean (Tiamat) which is beneath," a close parallel to "the waters which were above the firmament" and "the waters which were under the firmament" of Gen. i, 7; see the Introduction.

O Asari, "Bestower of planting," "[Founder of sowing],"
"Creator of grain and plants," "who caused [the green herb to spring up]!"
O Asaru-alim, "who is revered in the house of counsel," "[who aboundeth in counsel],"
The gods paid homage, fear [took hold upon them]!
O Asaru-alim-nuna, "the mighty one," "the Light of [the father who begat him],"
Who directeth the decrees of Anu, Bel, [and Ea]!"
He was their patron,
He, whose provision is abundance, goeth forth!
Tutu [is] "He who created them anew;"
Should their wants be pure, then are they [satisfied];
Should he make an incantation, then are the gods [appeased];
Should they attack him in anger, he withstandeth [their onslaught]!
Let him therefore be exalted, and in the assembly of the gods;
None among the gods can [rival him]!
Tutu is Zi-ukkina, "the Life of the host [of the gods],"
Who established for the gods the bright heavens.
He set them on their way, and ordained [their path],
Never shall his deeds be forgotten among men.
Tutu as Zi-azag thirdly they named, "the Bringer of Purification,"
"The God of the Favouring Breeze," "the Lord of Hearing and Mercy,"
"The Creator of Fulness and Abundance," "the Founder of Plenteousness,"
"Who increaseth all that is small."
"In sore distress we felt his favouring breeze,"
Let them say, let them pay reverence, let them bow in humility before him!
Tutu as Aga-azag may mankind fourthly magnify!
"The Lord of the Pure Incantation," "the Quickener of the Dead,"
"Who had mercy upon the captive gods,"
"Who removed the yoke from upon the gods his enemies,"
"For their forgiveness did he create mankind,"
"The Merciful One, with whom it is to bestow life!"
May his deeds endure, may they never be forgotten
In the mouth of mankind 1 whom his hands have made!
Tutu as Mu-azag, fifthly, his "Pure Incantation" may their mouth proclaim,
"Who through his Pure Incantation hath destroyed all the evil ones!"
Shag-zu, "who knoweth the heart of the gods," "who seeth through the innermost part!"
"The evil-doer he hath not caused to go forth with him!"
"Founder of the assembly of the gods,"
"Subduer of the disobedient,"
Tutu as Zi-si,
"Who put an end to anger,"
Tutu as Suh-kur, thirdly, "the [Destroyer of the foe],"
"Who put their plans to confusion,"
"Who destroyed all the wicked,"

[The following lines are taken from the fragment K. 12,830, but their position in the text is uncertain.]

[He named the four quarters (of the world)], mankind [he created],
[And upon] him understanding


[The following lines are taken from the fragment K. 13,761.]

"The mighty one [...]!"
... Agi[l ...],
"The Creator of [the earth ...]!"
Zulummu ... [...],
"The Giver of counsel and of whatsoever [...]!"
Mummu, "the Creator [of ...]!"
Mulil, the heavens [...],
Gishkul,
"Who brought the gods to naught[...]!"
Lugal-ab-

[The following lines are taken from the fragment K. 8,519 and its duplicate K. 13,337; this portion of the text was not separated by much from that preserved by K. 13,761.]

The Chief (?) of] all lords," [supreme] is his might!
[Lugal-durmah, "the King] of the band of the gods," "the Lord of rulers,"
"Who is exalted in a royal habitation,"
"[Who] among the gods is gloriously supreme!"
[Adu-nuna], "the Counsellor of Ea," who created the gods his fathers,
Unto the path of whose majesty
[No] god can ever attain!
[In] Dul-azag he made it known,
Pure is his dwelling!
Of those without understanding is Lugal-dul-azaga!
Supreme is his might!
Their [...] in the midst of Tiamat,
[...] ... of the battle!

[The numbering of the following lines is based on the marginal numbers upon No. 91,139. + 93,073.]

The star, which [shineth in the heavens].
May he hold the Beginning and the Future, may they pay homage unto him,
Saying, "He who forced his way through the midst of Tiamat [without resting],
"Let his name be Nibiru, 'the Seizer of the Midst'!
"For the stars of heaven he upheld the paths,
"He shepherded all the gods like sheep!
"He conquered Tiamat, he troubled and ended her life,"
In the future of mankind, when the days grow old,
May this be heard without ceasing, may it hold sway for ever!
Since he created the realm (of heaven) and fashioned the firm earth,
"The Lord of the World," the father Bêl hath called his name.
(This) title, which all the Spirits of Heaven proclaimed,
Did Ea hear, and his spirit was rejoiced, (and he said):
"He whose name his fathers have made glorious,
"Shall be even as I, his name shall be Ea!
"The binding of all my decrees shall he control,
"All my commands shall he make known! "
By the name of "Fifty" did the great gods
Proclaim his fifty names, they made his path pre-eminent."
Epilogue
Let them be held in remembrance, and let the first man proclaim them;
Let the wise and the understanding consider them together!
Let the father repeat them and teach them to his son;
Let them be in the ears of the pastor and the shepherd!
Let a man rejoice in Marduk, the Lord of the gods,
That he may cause his land to be fruitful, and that he himself may have prosperity!
His word standeth fast, his command is unaltered;
The utterance of his mouth hath no god ever annulled.
He gazed in his anger, he turned not his neck;
When he is wroth, no god can withstand his indignation.
Wide is his heart, broad is his compassion;
The sinner and evil-doer in his presence [...].
They received instruction, they spake before him,
Of Marduk may the gods [...].
[May] they [... his ] name [...]!


  1. King, Leonard W. The Seven Tablets of Creation, The First Tablet (1902)
  2. I.e., had not been created. The ancients believed that naming a thing was, in itself, an act of creation.—CSUN, p.10, note 1
  3. Probably an epithet in the sense of “mother.” Not to be confused with the vizier Mummu who is mentioned later.—CSUN, p.10, note 2
  4. I.e. the fresh waters (Apsu) and the salt waters (Tiamat) have not been separated yet—CSUN, p.10, note 3
  5. Another name of Ea (=Enki), the god of the earth and water.—CSUN, p.10, note 4
  6. This motif of the younger gods becoming more powerful than the older gods, and eventually supplanting them, is central to almost all of the mythological cycles of the Near East and the Eastern Mediterranean. It represents what may be thought of as the ultimate “generation gap.” Here this theme also symbolizes the process of creation, because the forces of nature (the gods) become more differentiated and defined.—CSUN, p.10, note 5
  7. I.e., the younger gods.—CSUN, p.10, note 6
  8. “He” refers to Ea, not Mummu.—CSUN, p.10, note 7
  9. King, Leonard W. The Seven Tablets of Creation, The First Tablet (1902)
  10. A complex concept that is taken here to mean “the attendant deities.”—CSUN, p.10, note 8
  11. The assembly hall of the gods.—CSUN, p.10, note 9
  12. King, Leonard W. The Seven Tablets of Creation, The Third Tablet (1902)
  13. King, Leonard W. The Seven Tablets of Creation, The Fourth Tablet (1902)
  14. California State University, The Enuma Elish (PDF) (short version)
  15. That is, has the authority of Anu, who was formerly the chief god.—CSUN, p.10, note 10
  16. This expression is taken from the shedding of blood, which was considered by the Babylonians to be the basis of life.—CSUN, p.10, note 11
  17. [. . .] represents a fragment of the text which has been lost—CSUN, p.10, note 12
  18. The following lines divide Tiamat’s forces into three categories: (1) the gods who had gone over to Tiamat, (2) the eleven kinds of monsters which Tiamat had created, and Kingu, —CSUN, p.10, note 13
  19. The god of death.—CSUN, p.10, note 14
  20. Poetic name for the earth, which the Babylonians visualized as the dome of Apsu.—CSUN, p.10, note 15
  21. The planet Jupiter.—CSUN, p.10, note 16
  22. The gates of East and West through which the sun was believed to pass.—CSUN, p.10, note 17
  23. EaCSUN, p.10, note 18
  24. Here Anunnaki refers to the underworld gods.—CSUN, p.10, note 19
  25. King, Leonard W. The Seven Tablets of Creation: The Fifth Tablet (1902)
  26. Jupiter — King, 1902, p.79, note 1
  27. King, 1902, p.83
  28. King, 1902, p.85
  29. It may be conjectured that the gods complained that, although Marduk had endowed the heavens with splendour and had caused plants to live upon the earth, yet there were no shrines built in honour of the gods, and there were no worshippers devoted to their service—King, 1902, p.85, note 1
  30. King, Leonard W. The Seven Tablets of Creation, The Fourth Tablet (1902)
  31. King, Leonard W. The Seven Tablets of Creation, The Seventh Tablet (1902)

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